In Bali, tigers were hunted to extinction; the last Bali tiger, an adult female, is thought to have been killed at Sumbar Kima, West Bali, on 27 September , though there were unconfirmed reports that villagers found a tiger corpse in The population is the last surviving of the three Indonesian island tiger populations.
Lions have been known to breed with tigers in captivity to create hybrids called ligers and tigons. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species.
The less common tigon is a cross between a lioness and a male tiger. The tiger has a muscular body with powerful forelimbs, a large head and a tail that is about half the length of its body.
Its pelage is dense and heavy, and colouration varies between shades of orange and brown with white ventral areas and distinctive vertical black stripes that are unique in each individual.
This is not due to skin pigmentation, but to the stubble and hair follicles embedded in the skin, similar to human beards colloquially five o'clock shadow , and is in common with other big cats.
The pupils are circular with yellow irises. The small, rounded ears have a prominent white spot on the back, surrounded by black.
The tiger's skull is similar to a lion 's skull, with the frontal region usually less depressed or flattened, and a slightly longer postorbital region.
The lion skull shows broader nasal openings. Due to the variation in skull sizes of the two species, the structure of the lower jaw is a reliable indicator for their identifcation.
Tigers are the most variable in size of all big cat species. The size difference between males and females is proportionally greater in the large tiger subspecies, with males weighing up to 1.
Males also have wider forepaw pads than females, enabling gender to be told from tracks. Large male Siberian tigers reach a total length of more than 3.
At the shoulder, tigers may variously stand 0. It allegedly weighed The Bengal and Siberian tigers are amongst the tallest cats in shoulder height. A well-known allele found only in the Bengal population produces the white tiger , a colour variant first recorded in the Mughal Empire in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Genetically, whiteness is recessive: This has given white tigers a greater likelihood of being born with physical defects, such as cleft palate , scoliosis curvature of the spine , and strabismus squint.
True albino tigers do exist and may be termed "snow white" tigers. In this colour morph, the stripes are extremely faint on the body while the tail has pale reddish-brown rings.
Golden tigers , another colour morph, have pale golden pelage with a blond tone and reddish-brown stripes. These types are rarely recorded in the wild.
Tiger populations once ranged widely across Asia , from the Black Sea in the west to Kolyma and Sumatra in the east and to the Indian Ocean in the south.
Today, its ecological habitats include the Siberian taiga as well as open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps, and it has been classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List.
Major reasons for the population decline include habitat destruction , habitat fragmentation and poaching. The global wild population is estimated to number between 3, and 3, individuals, down from around , at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other and with 2, of the total population living on the Indian subcontinent.
During the 20th century, tigers became extinct in Western and Central Asia , and in a number of Sunda Islands, and were restricted to isolated pockets in the remaining parts of their range.
They were extirpated on the island of Bali in the s, around the Caspian Sea in the s, and on Java in the s. This was the result of habitat loss and the ongoing killing of tigers and tiger prey.
The northern limit of their range is close to the Amur River in southeastern Siberia. The only large island they still inhabit is Sumatra.
The tiger occupies a wide range of habitat types, but will usually require sufficient cover , proximity to water , and an abundance of prey. It prefers dense vegetation, for which its camouflage colouring is ideally suited, and where a single predator is not at a disadvantage compared with the multiple cats in a pride.
In various parts of its range it inhabits or had inhabited additionally partially open grassland and savanna as well as taiga forests and rocky habitats.
When not subject to human disturbance, the tiger is mainly diurnal. They establish and maintain territories but have much wider home ranges within which they roam.
Resident adults of either sex generally confine their movements to their home ranges, within which they satisfy their needs and those of their growing cubs.
Individuals sharing the same area are aware of each other's movements and activities. Young female tigers establish their first territories close to their mother's.
The overlap between the female and her mother's territory reduces with time. Males, however, migrate further than their female counterparts and set out at a younger age to mark out their own area.
A young male acquires territory either by seeking out an area devoid of other male tigers, or by living as a transient in another male's territory until he is older and strong enough to challenge the resident male.
To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying urine   and anal gland secretions, as well as marking trails with scat and marking trees or the ground with their claws.
Females also use these "scrapes", as well as urine and scat markings. Scent markings of this type allow an individual to pick up information on another's identity, sex and reproductive status.
Females in oestrus will signal their availability by scent marking more frequently and increasing their vocalisations.
Although for the most part avoiding each other, tigers are not always territorial and relationships between individuals can be complex.
An adult of either sex will sometimes share its kill with others, even those who may not be related to them.
George Schaller observed a male share a kill with two females and four cubs. Unlike male lions, male tigers allow females and cubs to feed on the kill before the male is finished with it; all involved generally seem to behave amicably, in contrast to the competitive behaviour shown by a lion pride.
They found her at the kill just after dawn with her three month-old cubs and they watched uninterrupted for the next ten hours.
During this period the family was joined by two adult females and one adult male, all offspring from Padmini's previous litters, and by two unrelated tigers, one female the other unidentified.
By three o'clock there were no fewer than nine tigers round the kill. Occasionally, male tigers participate in raising cubs, usually their own, but this is extremely rare and not always well understood.
The photos show a male Amur tiger pass by, followed by a female and three cubs within the span of about two minutes.
The cubs remained under his care, he supplied them with food, protected them from his rival and sister, and apparently also trained them. Male tigers are generally more intolerant of other males within their territories than females are of other females.
Territory disputes are usually solved by displays of intimidation rather than outright aggression. Several such incidents have been observed in which the subordinate tiger yielded defeat by rolling onto its back and showing its belly in a submissive posture.
Facial expressions include the "defense threat", where an individual bares its teeth, flattens its ears and its pupils enlarge.
Both males and females show a flehmen response , a characteristic grimace, when sniffing urine markings but flehmen is more often associated with males detecting the markings made by tigresses in oestrus.
Like other Panthera , tigers roar , particularly in aggressive situations, during the mating season or when making a kill.
There are two different roars: When tense, tigers will moan, a sound similar to a roar but more subdued and made when the mouth is partially or completely closed.
Tigers generally do not prey on fully grown adult Asian elephants and Indian rhinoceros but incidents have been reported.
An exception is in the Sundarbans , where healthy tigers prey upon fishermen and villagers in search of forest produce, humans thereby forming a minor part of the tiger's diet.
Tigers are thought to be mainly nocturnal predators,  but in areas where humans are absent, remote-controlled, hidden camera traps recorded them hunting in daylight.
Successful hunts usually require the tiger to almost simultaneously leap onto its quarry, knock it over, and grab the throat or nape with its teeth.
If the prey catches wind of the tiger's presence before this, the tiger usually abandons the hunt rather than chase prey or battle it head-on.
One in 2 to 20 hunts, including stalking near potential prey, ends in a successful kill. When hunting larger animals, tigers prefer to bite the throat and use their powerful forelimbs to hold onto the prey, often simultaneously wrestling it to the ground.
The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its target dies of strangulation. No other extant land predator routinely takes on prey this large on its own.
With smaller prey, such as monkeys and hares, the tiger bites the nape , often breaking the spinal cord , piercing the windpipe , or severing the jugular vein or common carotid artery.
After killing their prey, tigers sometimes drag it to conceal it in vegetative cover, usually pulling it by grasping with their mouths at the site of the killing bite.
This, too, can require great physical strength. When 13 men simultaneously tried to drag the same carcass later, they were unable to move it.
Tigers usually prefer to eat prey they have caught themselves, but are not above eating carrion in times of scarcity and may even pirate prey from other large carnivores.
Although predators typically avoid one another, if a prey item is under dispute or a serious competitor is encountered, displays of aggression are common.
If these are not sufficient, the conflicts may turn violent; tigers may kill competitors as leopards , dholes , striped hyenas , wolves , bears , pythons , and crocodiles on occasion.
Tigers may also prey on these competitors. The considerably smaller leopard avoids competition from tigers by hunting at different times of the day and hunting different prey.
The average prey weight in the two respective big cats in India was Mating can occur all year round, but is more common between November and April.
Mating is frequent and noisy during that time. Gestation ranges from 93 to days, with an average of to days. Litters consist of one or three cubs, rarely as many as six.
Females lactate for five to six months. The father generally takes no part in rearing. Unrelated wandering male tigers often kill cubs to make the female receptive, since the tigress may give birth to another litter within five months if the cubs of the previous litter are lost.
Apart from humans and other tigers, common causes of cub mortality are starvation, freezing, and accidents. A dominant cub emerges in most litters, usually a male.
The cubs open their eyes at six to fourteen days old. By eight weeks, the cubs make short ventures outside the den with their mother, although they do not travel with her as she roams her territory until they are older.
The cubs are nursed for three to six months. Around the time they are weaned, they start to accompany their mother on territorial walks and they are taught how to hunt.
The cubs often become capable and nearly adult size hunters at eleven months old. The cubs become independent around eighteen months of age, but it is not until they are around two to two and a half years old that they fully separate from their mother.
Females reach sexual maturity at three to four years, whereas males do so at four to five years. The oldest recorded captive tiger lived for 26 years.
A wild specimen, having no natural predators, could in theory live to a comparable age. Generation length of the tiger is about eight years. Major threats to the tiger include habitat destruction , habitat fragmentation and poaching for fur and body parts, which have simultaneously greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild.
India is home to the world's largest population of wild tigers. The project was credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from some 1, in to over 3, in the s, but a census showed that numbers had dropped back to about 1, tigers because of poaching.
In the s, the Siberian tiger was on the brink of extinction with only about 40 animals remaining in the wild in Russia.
As a result, anti-poaching controls were put in place by the Soviet Union and a network of protected zones zapovedniks were instituted, leading to a rise in the population to several hundred.
Poaching again became a problem in the s, when the economy of Russia collapsed. Tigers have less impact on ungulate populations than do wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers.
Having earlier rejected the Western-led environmentalist movement, China changed its stance in the s and became a party to the CITES treaty.
By it had banned the trade in tiger parts, and this diminished the use of tiger bones in traditional Chinese medicine. The pelts were used in clothing, tiger-skin chuba being worn as fashion.
In the 14th Dalai Lama was persuaded to take up the issue. Since then there has been a change of attitude, with some Tibetans publicly burning their chubas.
In , the Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Conservation Strategy addressed the potential crisis that tigers faced in Sumatra. The Sumatran Tiger Project STP was initiated in June in and around the Way Kambas National Park in order to ensure the long-term viability of wild Sumatran tigers and to accumulate data on tiger life-history characteristics vital for the management of wild populations.
Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques. Tiger population have been estimated using plaster casts of their pugmarks , although this method was criticized as being inaccurate.
The exact number of wild tigers is unknown, as many estimates are outdated or educated guesses; few estimates are based on reliable scientific censuses.
Government officials claimed it was Tara, though Singh disputed this. Further controversy broke out with the discovery that Tara was partly Siberian tiger.
A future rewilding project was proposed for Siberian tigers set to be reintroduced to northern Russia's Pleistocene park. The Siberian tigers sent to Iran for a captive breeding project in Tehran are set to be rewilded and reintroduced to the Miankaleh peninsula , to replace the now extinct Caspian tigers.
The tiger has been one of the big five game animals of Asia. Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the early 19th and 20th centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the British in colonial India as well as the maharajas and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India.
A single maharaja or English hunter could claim to kill over a hundred tigers in their hunting career. Historically, tigers have been hunted at a large scale so their famous striped skins could be collected.
The trade in tiger skins peaked in the s, just before international conservation efforts took effect. Many people in China and other parts of Asia have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties, including as pain killers and aphrodisiacs.
The use of tiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned, and the government has made some offences in connection with tiger poaching punishable by death.
However, the trading of tiger parts in Asia has become a major black market industry and governmental and conservation attempts to stop it have been ineffective to date.
It is estimated that between 5, and 10, captive-bred, semi-tame animals live in these farms today. In the years of through , 27 million products with tiger derivatives were found.
Wild tigers that have had no prior contact with humans actively avoid interactions with humans. However, tigers cause more human deaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal.
Attacks can be provoked accidentally, as when a human surprises a tiger or inadvertently comes between a mother and her young,  or as in a case in rural India when a postman startled a tiger, used to seeing him on foot, by riding a bicycle.
Such attacks are most common in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats and reduced their wild prey.
Most man-eating tigers are old, missing teeth, and unable to capture their preferred prey. She was responsible for an estimated human deaths, the most attacks known to be perpetrated by a single wild animal, by the time she was shot in by Jim Corbett.
Man-eaters have been a particular problem in recent decades in India and Bangladesh, especially in Kumaon , Garhwal and the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal , where some healthy tigers have hunted humans.
Because of rapid habitat loss attributed to climate change , tiger attacks have increased in the Sundarbans. In the 10 years prior to that period, about attacks per year in the Sundarbans, with a high of around in some years of the s.
This decreased the number of attacks only temporarily. All other means to prevent attacks, such as providing more prey or using electrified human dummies, worked less well.
At least 27 people were killed or seriously injured by captive tigers in the United States from to In some cases, rather than being predatory, tiger attacks on human seem to be territorial in nature.
At least in one case, a tigress with cubs killed eight people entering her territory without consuming them at all.
In Ancient Roman times, tigers were kept in menageries and amphitheatres to be exhibited, trained and paraded, and were often provoked to fight humans and exotic beasts.
China had over 4, captive tigers, of which 3, were held by about twenty larger facilities, with the rest held by some smaller facilities.
The Tiger Species Survival Plan has condemned the breeding of white tigers , alleging they are of mixed ancestry and of unknown lineage.
The genes responsible for white colouration are represented by 0. The disproportionate growth in numbers of white tigers points to inbreeding among homozygous recessive individuals.
This would lead to inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variability. Tigers and their superlative qualities have been a source of fascination for mankind since ancient times, and they are routinely visible as important cultural and media motifs.
They are also considered one of the charismatic megafauna , and are used as the face of conservation campaigns worldwide. In Chinese myth and culture , the tiger is one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac.
In Chinese art , the tiger is depicted as an earth symbol and equal rival of the Chinese dragon — the two representing matter and spirit respectively.
The Southern Chinese martial art Hung Ga is based on the movements of the tiger and the crane. In Imperial China , a tiger was the personification of war and often represented the highest army general or present day defense secretary ,  while the emperor and empress were represented by a dragon and phoenix , respectively.
The White Tiger Chinese: It is sometimes called the White Tiger of the West Chinese: The tiger's tail appears in stories from countries including China and Korea, it being generally inadvisable to grasp a tiger by the tail.
In Buddhism , the tiger is one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolising anger, with the monkey representing greed and the deer lovesickness.
The Udege and Nanai called it "Amba". The Manchu considered the Siberian tiger as "Hu Lin," the king. In southern India the god Ayyappan was associated with a tiger.
The weretiger replaces the werewolf in shapeshifting folklore in Asia;  in India they were evil sorcerers, while in Indonesia and Malaysia they were somewhat more benign.
In William Blake 's poem in the Songs of Experience , titled " The Tyger ," the tiger is a menacing and fearful animal.
In Yann Martel 's Man Booker Prize winning novel Life of Pi , the protagonist, surviving shipwreck for months in a small boat, somehow avoids being eaten by the other survivor, a large Bengal tiger.
The story was adapted in Ang Lee 's feature film of the same name. Jim Corbett 's Man-Eaters of Kumaon tells ten true stories of his tiger-hunting exploits in what is now the northern Uttarakhand region of India.
The book has sold over four million copies,  and has been the basis of both fictional and documentary films.
In Rudyard Kipling 's The Jungle Book , the tiger, Shere Khan , is the mortal enemy of the human protagonist, Mowgli ; the book has formed the basis of both live-action and animated films.
Other tiger characters aimed at children tend to be more benign, as for instance Tigger in A. Milne 's Winnie-the-Pooh and Hobbes of the comic strip Calvin and Hobbes , both of whom are represented as simply stuffed animals come to life.
Tiger are also mascots for various sports teams around the world. Tony the Tiger is a famous mascot for Kellogg's breakfast cereal Frosted Flakes.
The Esso Exxon brand of petrol was advertised from onwards with the slogan 'put a tiger in your tank', and a tiger mascot; more than 2.
The tiger appears in heraldry but is distinct from the heraldic beast tyger , a wolflike, snouted creature which has its roots in European Medieval bestiaries.
The tiger is one of the animals displayed on the Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The tiger was the emblem of the Chola Dynasty and was depicted on coins, seals and banners.
Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks.
The Bengal tiger is the national animal of India and Bangladesh. Since the successful economies of South Korea , Taiwan , Hong Kong and Singapore were described as the Four Asian Tigers , a tiger economy is a metaphor for a nation in rapid development.
A to Z Essays: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Tiger disambiguation and Tigress disambiguation.
Largest species of the cat family. Felid hybrid , Panthera hybrid , Liger , and Tigon. A captive tiger swimming and playing with a piece of wood in a pool.
An adult tiger showing incisors, canines and part of the premolars and molars, while yawning in Franklin Park Zoo.
Bengal tiger subduing an Indian boar at Tadoba National Park. For other uses, see Tiger Cub. Two cubs playing with soccer ball at Frankfurt Zoo.
Cats portal Mammals portal Extinct and endangered species portal Asia portal. Retrieved 23 October Archived from the original PDF on 25 April Tomus I decima, reformata ed.
Taylor and Francis, Ltd. Retrieved 6 April A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented. Retrieved 24 October Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Zur Fossilgeschichte des Tigers Panthera tigris L. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
Memoirs of the National Science Museum. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. Archived from the original on 23 April Mammalian Biology, Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde.
Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 27 June Cat News Special Issue Archived from the original PDF on 9 March Tiger ecology and conservation in the Indian subcontinent.
The Journal of Wildlife Management. Who's king of the beasts? Historical and recent body weights of wild and captive Amur tigers, with comparisons to other subspecies.
Tigers in Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: Retrieved 3 May Archived from the original on Retrieved 29 November Volume II, Part 2.
Carnivora Hyaenas and Cats ]. You can search the forum without needing to register. You need to be logged in to use the vocabulary trainer.
Registration and use of the trainer are free of charge. You need to be logged in to start a new thread.
Registration and participation are free! Ask the LEO community. Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: Zur mobilen Version wechseln.
Aus dem Umfeld der Suche Beifallsgebrüll. Forum discussions containing the search term Three cheers and a tiger! Last post 16 Jul 12, Last post 30 Sep 11, Marmor-Reiher, m Tigrisoma lineatum Last post 04 Jan 18, Schwimmbeutler Chir… 0 Replies ruby tiger - der Zimtbär, wiss.: Phragmatobia fuliginosa Last post 29 Sep 17, Thylacinus cynocephalus ] Last post 28 Mar 17, Lilium tigrinum Last post 30 Dec 14,