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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für of im Online-Wörterbuch e-trust.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzungen für of im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:of, people of this island, the language of this country, the cause of the disease, the. Der erste freundliche Freitag bei World of Tanks Ihr kennt bereits die Wochenendspecials, doch diesmal wartet ein neues Event auf euch: Der Freundliche.

The Constitution delegates some powers to the national government, and it forbids some powers to the states.

Any powers not granted to the federal government or forbidden to the states are reserved for states and the people by the Tenth Amendment.

S Congress are enumerated in Article I, Section 8 , for example, the power to declare war. Making treaties is one power forbidden to the states, and is listed among other such powers in Article I, Section Among the Article I enumerated powers of Congress is the power to regulate Commerce.

Since the early 20th century, the Supreme Court's interpretation of this " Commerce Clause " has, over time, greatly expanded scope of federal power , at the expense of powers formerly considered purely states' matters.

The Cambridge Economic History of the United States says, "On the whole, especially after the mids, the Court construed the Commerce Clause in favor of increased federal power.

Darby upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act of , holding that Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to regulate employment conditions.

Filburn , the Court expanded federal power to regulate the economy by holding that federal authority under the commerce clause extends to activities which may appear to be local in nature but in reality effect the entire national economy and are therefore of national concern.

Through such decisions, argues law professor David F. Forte, "the Court turned the commerce power into the equivalent of a general regulatory power and undid the Framers' original structure of limited and delegated powers.

Only within the past couple of decades, through decisions in cases such as those in U. Lopez and U. Morrison , has the Court tried to limit the Commerce Clause power of Congress.

Another enumerated congressional power is its power is its taxing and spending power. The system is mandated and largely funded by the federal government, and also serves the interests of the states.

By threatening to withhold federal highway funds, Congress has been able to pressure state legislatures to pass a variety of laws.

Although some objected that this infringes on states' rights, the Supreme Court upheld the practice as a permissible use of the Constitution's Spending Clause in South Dakota v.

As prescribed by Article I of the Constitution, which establishes the U. Congress, each state is represented in the Senate irrespective of population size by two senators, and each is guaranteed at least one representative in the House.

Both senators and representatives are chosen in direct popular elections in the various states. Prior to , senators were elected by state legislatures.

There are presently senators, who are elected at-large to staggered terms of six years, with one-third of them being chosen every two years.

Representatives are elected at-large or from single-member districts to terms of two years not staggered. The size of the House—presently voting members—is set by federal statute.

Seats in the House are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.

Citizens in each state plus those in the District of Columbia indirectly elect the president and vice president. When casting ballots in presidential elections they are voting for presidential electors , who then, using procedures provided in the 12th amendment , elect the president and vice president.

While the Constitution does set parameters for the election of federal officials, state law, not federal, regulates most aspects of elections in the U.

All elections—federal, state and local—are administered by the individual states, and some voting rules and procedures may differ among them.

Article V of the Constitution accords states a key role in the process of amending the U. Amendments may be proposed either by Congress with a two-thirds vote in both the House and the Senate, or by a convention of states called for by two-thirds of the state legislatures.

Article IV also grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Each new state has been admitted on an equal footing with the existing states.

This caveat was designed to give Eastern states that still had Western land claims including Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia , to have a veto over whether their western counties could become states, [19] and has served this same function since, whenever a proposal to partition an existing state or states in order that a region within might either join another state or to create a new state has come before Congress.

Most of the states admitted to the Union after the original 13 were formed from an organized territory established and governed by Congress in accord with its plenary power under Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2.

In some cases, an entire territory has become a state; in others some part of a territory has. When the people of a territory make their desire for statehood known to the federal government, Congress may pass an enabling act authorizing the people of that territory to organize a constitutional convention to write a state constitution as a step towards admission to the Union.

Each act details the mechanism by which the territory will be admitted as a state following ratification of their constitution and election of state officers.

Although the use of an enabling act is a traditional historic practice, a number of territories have drafted constitutions for submission to Congress absent an enabling act and were subsequently admitted.

Upon acceptance of that constitution, and upon meeting any additional Congressional stipulations, Congress has always admitted that territory as a state.

In addition to the original 13, six subsequent states were never an organized territory of the federal government, or part of one, before being admitted to the Union.

Three were set off from an already existing state, two entered the Union after having been sovereign states , and one was established from unorganized territory:.

Congress is under no obligation to admit states, even in those areas whose population expresses a desire for statehood.

Such has been the case numerous times during the nation's history. It existed for slightly over two years and was never approved by the United States Congress.

In another, leaders of the Five Civilized Tribes Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole in Indian Territory proposed to establish the state of Sequoyah in , as a means to retain control of their lands.

Instead, the Indian Territory, along with Oklahoma Territory were both incorporated into the new state of Oklahoma in The first instance occurred while the nation still operated under the Articles of Confederation.

The State of Franklin existed for several years, not long after the end of the American Revolution, but was never recognized by the Confederation Congress, which ultimately recognized North Carolina 's claim of sovereignty over the area.

The territory comprising Franklin later became part of the Southwest Territory, and ultimately the state of Tennessee. Additionally, the entry of several states into the Union was delayed due to distinctive complicating factors.

Among them, Michigan Territory , which petitioned Congress for statehood in , was not admitted to the Union until , due to a boundary dispute with the adjoining state of Ohio.

The Republic of Texas requested annexation to the United States in , but fears about potential conflict with Mexico delayed the admission of Texas for nine years.

West Virginia's bid for statehood was also delayed over slavery, and was settled when it agreed to adopt a gradual abolition plan.

As with any non-state territory of the United States, its residents do not have voting representation in the federal government.

Puerto Rico has limited representation in Congress in the form of a Resident Commissioner , a delegate with limited voting rights in the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union , and no voting rights otherwise.

A non-binding referendum on statehood, independence, or a new option for an associated territory different from the current status was held on November 6, On December 11, , the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico enacted a concurrent resolution requesting the President and the Congress of the United States to respond to the referendum of the people of Puerto Rico, held on November 6, , to end its current form of territorial status and to begin the process to admit Puerto Rico as a State.

On June 27, , the H. House with the purpose of respond to, and comply with, the democratic will of the United States citizens residing in Puerto Rico as expressed in the plebiscites held on November 6, , and June 11, , by setting forth the terms for the admission of the territory of Puerto Rico as a State of the Union.

The intention of the Founding Fathers was that the United States capital should be at a neutral site, not giving favor to any existing state; as a result, the District of Columbia was created in to serve as the seat of government.

As it is not a state, the district does not have representation in the Senate and has a non-voting delegate in the House; neither does it have a sovereign elected government.

Additionally, prior to ratification of the 23rd Amendment in , district citizens did not get the right to vote in Presidential elections.

Some residents of the District support statehood of some form for that jurisdiction — either statehood for the whole district or for the inhabited part, with the remainder remaining under federal jurisdiction.

In November , Washington, D. Other possible new states are Guam and the U. Virgin Islands , both of which are unincorporated organized territories of the United States.

Also, either the Northern Mariana Islands or American Samoa , an unorganized, unincorporated territory, could seek statehood.

The Constitution is silent on the issue of whether a state can withdraw from the Union. However, its predecessor document, the Articles of Confederation , stated that the United States "shall be perpetual.

In and , 11 southern states each declared secession from the United States, and joined together to form the Confederate States of America CSA.

Following the defeat of Confederate forces by Union armies in , those states were brought back into the Union during the ensuing Reconstruction Era.

The federal government never recognized the sovereignty of the CSA, or the validity of the ordinances of secession adopted by the seceding states.

White , held that states did not have the right to secede and that any act of secession was legally void. Drawing on the Preamble to the Constitution , which states that the Constitution was intended to "form a more perfect union" and speaks of the people of the United States in effect as a single body politic, as well as the language of the Articles of Confederation, the Supreme Court maintained that states did not have a right to secede.

However, the court's reference in the same decision to the possibility of such changes occurring "through revolution, or through consent of the States," essentially means that this decision holds that no state has a right to unilaterally decide to leave the Union.

Four states — Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia — adopted constitutions early in their post-colonial existence identifying themselves as commonwealths , rather than states.

These commonwealths are states, but legally, each is a commonwealth because the term is contained in its constitution.

The term, which refers to a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people , was first used in Virginia during the Interregnum , the —60 period between the reigns of Charles I and Charles II during which parliament's Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector established a republican government known as the Commonwealth of England.

Virginia became a royal colony again in , and the word was dropped from the full title. When Virginia adopted its first constitution on June 29, , it was reintroduced.

This designation does have a legal status different from that of the 50 states. Both of these commonwealths are unincorporated territories of the United States.

The 50 states have taken their names from a wide variety of languages. Twenty-four state names originate from Native American languages.

Of these, eight are from Algonquian languages , seven are from Siouan languages , three are from Iroquoian languages , one is from Uto-Aztecan languages and five others are from other indigenous languages.

Hawaii 's name is derived from the Polynesian Hawaiian language. Of the remaining names, 22 are from European languages: Eleven states are named after individual people , including seven named for royalty and one named after a President of the United States.

The origins of six state names are unknown or disputed. Several of the states that derive their names from corrupted names used for Native peoples , have retained the plural ending of "s".

The borders of the 13 original states were largely determined by colonial charters. Their western boundaries were subsequently modified as the states ceded their western land claims to the Federal government during the s and s.

Many state borders beyond those of the original 13 were set by Congress as it created territories, divided them, and over time, created states within them.

Territorial and new state lines often followed various geographic features such as rivers or mountain range peaks , and were influenced by settlement or transportation patterns.

At various times, national borders with territories formerly controlled by other countries British North America , New France , New Spain including Spanish Florida , and Russian America became institutionalized as the borders of U.

In the West, relatively arbitrary straight lines following latitude and longitude often prevail, due to the sparseness of settlement west of the Mississippi River.

Once established, most state borders have, with few exceptions, been generally stable. Only two states, Missouri Platte Purchase and Nevada, grew appreciably after statehood.

Several of the original states ceded land , over a several year period, to the Federal government, which in turn became the Northwest Territory, Southwest Territory , and Mississippi Territory.

In Maryland and Virginia ceded land to create the District of Columbia Virginia's portion was returned in In , Texas ceded a large swath of land to the federal government.

Additionally, Massachusetts and Virginia on two occasions , have lost land, in each instance to form a new state. There have been numerous other minor adjustments to state boundaries over the years due to improved surveys, resolution of ambiguous or disputed boundary definitions, or minor mutually agreed boundary adjustments for administrative convenience or other purposes.

Supreme Court has had to settle state border disputes. One notable example is the case New Jersey v. States may be grouped in regions; there are many variations and possible groupings.

Many are defined in law or regulations by the federal government. For example, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Voting in the mid-term elections. Secretary of State Pompeo on the release of the Trafficking in Persons report.

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Shortly after the Civil War , the U. Supreme Court , in Texas v. White , held that a state cannot unilaterally do so. As sovereign entities, each of the 50 states reserves the right to organize its individual government in any way within the broad parameters set by the U.

Constitution deemed appropriate by its people. As a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substance.

No two state governments are identical. The government of each state is structured in accordance with its individual constitution.

Many of these documents are more detailed and more elaborate than their federal counterpart. The Constitution of Alabama , for example, contains , words — more than 40 times as many as the U.

In each state, the chief executive is called the governor, who serves as both head of state and head of government.

All governors are chosen by direct election. The governor may approve or veto bills passed by the state legislature, as well as push for the passage of bills supported by their party.

In 44 states, governors have line item veto power. In these states, executive power is distributed amongst other officials, [10] elected by the people independently of the governor—such as the lieutenant governor , attorney general , comptroller , secretary of state , and others.

The constitutions of 19 states allow for citizens to remove and replace an elected public official before the end of their term of office through a recall election.

In all states, the legislatures can remove state executive branch officials, including governors, who have committed serious abuses of their power from office.

The process of doing so includes impeachment the bringing of specific charges , and a trial, in which legislators act as a jury.

The primary responsibilities of state legislatures are to enact state laws and appropriate money for the administration of public policy.

The exception is the unicameral Nebraska Legislature , which has only a single chamber. Ten state legislatures are considered full-time ; these bodies are more similar to the U.

Congress than are the others. Members of each state's legislature are chosen by direct election.

Carr and Reynolds v. Sims , the U. Supreme Court held that all states are required to elect their legislatures in such a way as to afford each citizen the same degree of representation the one person, one vote standard.

In practice, most states elect legislators from single-member districts , each of which has approximately the same population.

Some states, such as Maryland and Vermont, divide the state into single- and multi-member districts, in which case multi-member districts must have proportionately larger populations, e.

The voting systems used across the nation are: In , there were a total of 7, legislators in the 50 state legislative bodies. There were various per diem and mileage compensation.

States can also organize their judicial systems differently from the federal judiciary , as long as they protect the federal constitutional right of their citizens to procedural due process.

Most have a trial level court, generally called a District Court , Superior Court or Circuit Court , a first-level appellate court , generally called a Court of Appeal or Appeals , and a Supreme Court.

However, Oklahoma and Texas have separate highest courts for criminal appeals. State court systems provide general courts with broad jurisdiction. The overwhelming majority of criminal and civil cases in the United States are heard in state courts.

The annual number of cases filed in state courts are around 30,, and the number of judges in state courts is about 30,—by comparison, federal courts see some 1,, filed cases with about judges.

Most states base their legal system on English common law with substantial indigenous changes and incorporation of certain civil law innovations , with the notable exception of Louisiana, a former French colony , which draws large parts of its legal system from French civil law.

Only a few states choose to have the judges on the state's courts serve for life terms. In most of the states the judges, including the justices of the highest court in the state, are either elected or appointed for terms of a limited number of years, and are usually eligible for re-election or reappointment.

All states have unitary governments , local governments are created under state law, and ultimately, local governments within each state are subject to the central authority of that particular state.

State governments commonly delegate some authority to local units and channel policy decisions down to them for implementation. The prevailing legal theory of state preeminence over local governments, referred to as Dillon's Rule , holds that,.

A municipal corporation possesses and can exercise the following powers and no others: First, those granted in express words; second, those necessarily implied or necessarily incident to the powers expressly granted; third, those absolutely essential to the declared objects and purposes of the corporation-not simply convenient but indispensable; fourth, any fair doubt as to the existence of a power is resolved by the courts against the corporation-against the existence of the powers.

Each state defines for itself what powers it will allow local governments. Generally, four categories of power may be given to local jurisdictions:.

Each state admitted to the Union by Congress since has entered it on an equal footing with the original States in all respects.

Hagan , that the Constitution mandated admission of new states on the basis of equality. Compacts are frequently used to manage a shared resource, such as transportation infrastructure or water rights.

Under Article IV of the Constitution , which outlines the relationship between the states, each state is required to give full faith and credit to the acts of each other's legislatures and courts, which is generally held to include the recognition of most contracts and criminal judgments, and before , slavery status.

Under the Extradition Clause , a state must extradite people located there who have fled charges of "treason, felony, or other crimes" in another state if the other state so demands.

The principle of hot pursuit of a presumed felon and arrest by the law officers of one state in another state are often permitted by a state.

The full faith and credit expectation does have exceptions, some legal arrangements, such as professional licensure and marriages, may be state-specific, and until recently states have not been found by the courts to be required to honor such arrangements from other states.

States are prohibited from discriminating against citizens of other states with respect to their basic rights , under the Privileges and Immunities Clause.

Under Article IV, each state is guaranteed a form of government that is grounded in republican principles, such as the consent of the governed.

States are also guaranteed protection from invasion, and, upon the application of the state legislature or executive, if the legislature cannot be convened , from domestic violence.

This provision was discussed during the Detroit riot , but was not invoked. The Supremacy Clause Article VI, Clause 2 establishes that the Constitution , federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land.

Even state constitutions are subordinate to federal law. States' rights are understood mainly with reference to the Tenth Amendment.

The Constitution delegates some powers to the national government, and it forbids some powers to the states. Any powers not granted to the federal government or forbidden to the states are reserved for states and the people by the Tenth Amendment.

S Congress are enumerated in Article I, Section 8 , for example, the power to declare war. Making treaties is one power forbidden to the states, and is listed among other such powers in Article I, Section Among the Article I enumerated powers of Congress is the power to regulate Commerce.

Since the early 20th century, the Supreme Court's interpretation of this " Commerce Clause " has, over time, greatly expanded scope of federal power , at the expense of powers formerly considered purely states' matters.

The Cambridge Economic History of the United States says, "On the whole, especially after the mids, the Court construed the Commerce Clause in favor of increased federal power.

Darby upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act of , holding that Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to regulate employment conditions.

Filburn , the Court expanded federal power to regulate the economy by holding that federal authority under the commerce clause extends to activities which may appear to be local in nature but in reality effect the entire national economy and are therefore of national concern.

Through such decisions, argues law professor David F. Forte, "the Court turned the commerce power into the equivalent of a general regulatory power and undid the Framers' original structure of limited and delegated powers.

Only within the past couple of decades, through decisions in cases such as those in U. Lopez and U. Morrison , has the Court tried to limit the Commerce Clause power of Congress.

Another enumerated congressional power is its power is its taxing and spending power. The system is mandated and largely funded by the federal government, and also serves the interests of the states.

By threatening to withhold federal highway funds, Congress has been able to pressure state legislatures to pass a variety of laws.

Although some objected that this infringes on states' rights, the Supreme Court upheld the practice as a permissible use of the Constitution's Spending Clause in South Dakota v.

As prescribed by Article I of the Constitution, which establishes the U. Congress, each state is represented in the Senate irrespective of population size by two senators, and each is guaranteed at least one representative in the House.

Both senators and representatives are chosen in direct popular elections in the various states. Prior to , senators were elected by state legislatures.

There are presently senators, who are elected at-large to staggered terms of six years, with one-third of them being chosen every two years.

Representatives are elected at-large or from single-member districts to terms of two years not staggered.

The size of the House—presently voting members—is set by federal statute. Seats in the House are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.

Citizens in each state plus those in the District of Columbia indirectly elect the president and vice president.

When casting ballots in presidential elections they are voting for presidential electors , who then, using procedures provided in the 12th amendment , elect the president and vice president.

While the Constitution does set parameters for the election of federal officials, state law, not federal, regulates most aspects of elections in the U.

All elections—federal, state and local—are administered by the individual states, and some voting rules and procedures may differ among them.

Article V of the Constitution accords states a key role in the process of amending the U. Amendments may be proposed either by Congress with a two-thirds vote in both the House and the Senate, or by a convention of states called for by two-thirds of the state legislatures.

Article IV also grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Each new state has been admitted on an equal footing with the existing states.

This caveat was designed to give Eastern states that still had Western land claims including Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia , to have a veto over whether their western counties could become states, [19] and has served this same function since, whenever a proposal to partition an existing state or states in order that a region within might either join another state or to create a new state has come before Congress.

Most of the states admitted to the Union after the original 13 were formed from an organized territory established and governed by Congress in accord with its plenary power under Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2.

In some cases, an entire territory has become a state; in others some part of a territory has. When the people of a territory make their desire for statehood known to the federal government, Congress may pass an enabling act authorizing the people of that territory to organize a constitutional convention to write a state constitution as a step towards admission to the Union.

Each act details the mechanism by which the territory will be admitted as a state following ratification of their constitution and election of state officers.

Although the use of an enabling act is a traditional historic practice, a number of territories have drafted constitutions for submission to Congress absent an enabling act and were subsequently admitted.

Upon acceptance of that constitution, and upon meeting any additional Congressional stipulations, Congress has always admitted that territory as a state.

In addition to the original 13, six subsequent states were never an organized territory of the federal government, or part of one, before being admitted to the Union.

Three were set off from an already existing state, two entered the Union after having been sovereign states , and one was established from unorganized territory:.

Congress is under no obligation to admit states, even in those areas whose population expresses a desire for statehood. Such has been the case numerous times during the nation's history.

It existed for slightly over two years and was never approved by the United States Congress. In another, leaders of the Five Civilized Tribes Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole in Indian Territory proposed to establish the state of Sequoyah in , as a means to retain control of their lands.

Instead, the Indian Territory, along with Oklahoma Territory were both incorporated into the new state of Oklahoma in The first instance occurred while the nation still operated under the Articles of Confederation.

The State of Franklin existed for several years, not long after the end of the American Revolution, but was never recognized by the Confederation Congress, which ultimately recognized North Carolina 's claim of sovereignty over the area.

The territory comprising Franklin later became part of the Southwest Territory, and ultimately the state of Tennessee. Additionally, the entry of several states into the Union was delayed due to distinctive complicating factors.

Among them, Michigan Territory , which petitioned Congress for statehood in , was not admitted to the Union until , due to a boundary dispute with the adjoining state of Ohio.

The Republic of Texas requested annexation to the United States in , but fears about potential conflict with Mexico delayed the admission of Texas for nine years.

West Virginia's bid for statehood was also delayed over slavery, and was settled when it agreed to adopt a gradual abolition plan. As with any non-state territory of the United States, its residents do not have voting representation in the federal government.

Puerto Rico has limited representation in Congress in the form of a Resident Commissioner , a delegate with limited voting rights in the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union , and no voting rights otherwise.

A non-binding referendum on statehood, independence, or a new option for an associated territory different from the current status was held on November 6, On December 11, , the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico enacted a concurrent resolution requesting the President and the Congress of the United States to respond to the referendum of the people of Puerto Rico, held on November 6, , to end its current form of territorial status and to begin the process to admit Puerto Rico as a State.

On June 27, , the H. House with the purpose of respond to, and comply with, the democratic will of the United States citizens residing in Puerto Rico as expressed in the plebiscites held on November 6, , and June 11, , by setting forth the terms for the admission of the territory of Puerto Rico as a State of the Union.

The intention of the Founding Fathers was that the United States capital should be at a neutral site, not giving favor to any existing state; as a result, the District of Columbia was created in to serve as the seat of government.

As it is not a state, the district does not have representation in the Senate and has a non-voting delegate in the House; neither does it have a sovereign elected government.

Additionally, prior to ratification of the 23rd Amendment in , district citizens did not get the right to vote in Presidential elections.

Some residents of the District support statehood of some form for that jurisdiction — either statehood for the whole district or for the inhabited part, with the remainder remaining under federal jurisdiction.

In November , Washington, D. Other possible new states are Guam and the U. Virgin Islands , both of which are unincorporated organized territories of the United States.

Also, either the Northern Mariana Islands or American Samoa , an unorganized, unincorporated territory, could seek statehood.

The Constitution is silent on the issue of whether a state can withdraw from the Union. However, its predecessor document, the Articles of Confederation , stated that the United States "shall be perpetual.

In and , 11 southern states each declared secession from the United States, and joined together to form the Confederate States of America CSA.

Following the defeat of Confederate forces by Union armies in , those states were brought back into the Union during the ensuing Reconstruction Era.

The federal government never recognized the sovereignty of the CSA, or the validity of the ordinances of secession adopted by the seceding states.

White , held that states did not have the right to secede and that any act of secession was legally void.

Drawing on the Preamble to the Constitution , which states that the Constitution was intended to "form a more perfect union" and speaks of the people of the United States in effect as a single body politic, as well as the language of the Articles of Confederation, the Supreme Court maintained that states did not have a right to secede.

However, the court's reference in the same decision to the possibility of such changes occurring "through revolution, or through consent of the States," essentially means that this decision holds that no state has a right to unilaterally decide to leave the Union.

Four states — Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia — adopted constitutions early in their post-colonial existence identifying themselves as commonwealths , rather than states.

These commonwealths are states, but legally, each is a commonwealth because the term is contained in its constitution. The term, which refers to a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people , was first used in Virginia during the Interregnum , the —60 period between the reigns of Charles I and Charles II during which parliament's Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector established a republican government known as the Commonwealth of England.

Virginia became a royal colony again in , and the word was dropped from the full title. When Virginia adopted its first constitution on June 29, , it was reintroduced.

This designation does have a legal status different from that of the 50 states. Both of these commonwealths are unincorporated territories of the United States.

The 50 states have taken their names from a wide variety of languages. Twenty-four state names originate from Native American languages.

Of these, eight are from Algonquian languages , seven are from Siouan languages , three are from Iroquoian languages , one is from Uto-Aztecan languages and five others are from other indigenous languages.

Hawaii 's name is derived from the Polynesian Hawaiian language. Of the remaining names, 22 are from European languages: Eleven states are named after individual people , including seven named for royalty and one named after a President of the United States.

The origins of six state names are unknown or disputed. Several of the states that derive their names from corrupted names used for Native peoples , have retained the plural ending of "s".

The borders of the 13 original states were largely determined by colonial charters. Their western boundaries were subsequently modified as the states ceded their western land claims to the Federal government during the s and s.

Many state borders beyond those of the original 13 were set by Congress as it created territories, divided them, and over time, created states within them.

Territorial and new state lines often followed various geographic features such as rivers or mountain range peaks , and were influenced by settlement or transportation patterns.

At various times, national borders with territories formerly controlled by other countries British North America , New France , New Spain including Spanish Florida , and Russian America became institutionalized as the borders of U.

In the West, relatively arbitrary straight lines following latitude and longitude often prevail, due to the sparseness of settlement west of the Mississippi River.

Once established, most state borders have, with few exceptions, been generally stable. Only two states, Missouri Platte Purchase and Nevada, grew appreciably after statehood.

Several of the original states ceded land , over a several year period, to the Federal government, which in turn became the Northwest Territory, Southwest Territory , and Mississippi Territory.

In Maryland and Virginia ceded land to create the District of Columbia Virginia's portion was returned in In , Texas ceded a large swath of land to the federal government.

Additionally, Massachusetts and Virginia on two occasions , have lost land, in each instance to form a new state.

There have been numerous other minor adjustments to state boundaries over the years due to improved surveys, resolution of ambiguous or disputed boundary definitions, or minor mutually agreed boundary adjustments for administrative convenience or other purposes.

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